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英文习语来源及翻译方法

 一、英语习语的来源

1.圣经(HOLY BIBLE)

the salt of the earth 中坚力量

a wolf in sheep’s clothing 披着羊皮的狼

separate the sheep from the goats 分辨好坏

cast not the first stone 欲责他人,先思己过

the leopard cannot change his spots 江山易改本性难移

as old as Methuselah 非常古老

good samaritan 心地善良乐于助人的人

 

2.古希腊罗马神话(Greek and Roman Mythology)

an apple of discord 争斗之源,祸根

the archilles’ heel 致命的弱点

a Gordian knot 难题

cut the Gordian knot 快刀斩乱麻

pandora’s box 潘多拉盒子

Greek gift 阴谋害人的礼物

the sword of Damocles 达摩克斯之剑

 

3.莎士比亚戏剧(Shakespearean plays)

bay(bark at) the moon 做徒劳无益的事

what’s done is done 既往不咎

strange bed fellows同床异梦

be hoist with one’s own petard 自作自受

much ado about nothing无事生非

to paint the lily画蛇添足,多此一举

love is blind爱情是盲目的

a foregone conclusion 预料之中的结果

 

4.伊索寓言(Aesop's Fables)

a dog in the manger 在其位不谋其政

cherish a snake in one’s bosom养虎遗患

kill the goose that lays the golden eggs杀鸡取卵

cry wolf 发假情报

sour grapes酸葡萄

blow hot and cold 朝三暮四

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二、英语习语的常用译法

1.直译法

A cat has nine lives.猫有九命。

A barking dog never bites. 吠犬不咬人。

A rolling stone gathers no moss.滚石不生苔。

Too many cooks spoil the broth. 厨子多了煮坏汤。

 

2.直译加解释法

Bad workmen often blame their tools. 拙匠常怪工具差。(不会撑船怪河弯)

He who laughs at crooked men should need walk very straight.

笑别人驼背的人得自己首先把身子挺直。(正人先正己)

It’s a long lane that has no turning. 路必有弯。(事必有变,事情总会有转机)

 

3.意译改造法

One swallow does not make a summer. 一燕不成夏。

A single flower does not make a spring. 一花不是春(独木不成林)。

No smoke without fire. 无风不起浪。

Every dog has his day. 凡人皆有得意时。

A stitch in time saves nine.亡羊补牢,为时未晚。

Many hands make light work. 众人拾柴火焰高。

Penny wise, pound foolish. 贪小便宜吃大亏。

The pot calls the kettle black. 五十步笑百步。

Two dogs strive for a bone, and a third one runs away with it. 鹬蚌相争,渔翁得利。

 

4.等值互借法

Wall have ears. 隔墙有耳。

Great minds think alike. 英雄所见略同。

Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。

Like father, like son. 有其父,必有其子。

Where there is will, there is a way. 有志者事竟成。

It is never too old to learn. 活到老,学到老。

Let bygones be bygones. 过去的就让它过去吧。

 

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